Association of Umbilical Cord Lactate Levels and Capillary Ph with Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy in Neonates Born with Intrapartum Asphyxia
Keywords:Base deficit, Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, Neonates
Objective: To estimate the association of umbilical cord lactate levels and pH with Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy in neonates born with intrapartum asphyxia.
Study Design: Comparative cross-sectional study.
Place and Duration of study: Pediatrics Department, Pak Emirates Military Hospital, Rawalpindi Pakistan, from February 2021 to April 2022.
Methodology: The study was conducted on neonates born with suspicion of intrapartum asphyxia at our hospital. Umbilical cord lactate levels and capillary pH were performed within the first 30 minutes of birth. Then, neonates were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit and followed up for three days to look for the presence and severity of Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE). Association was ascertained between raised lactate levels and negative base deficit with HypoxicIschemic Encephalopathy.
Results: A total of 1000 neonates were included in the final analysis. From 1000 neonates with intrapartum asphyxia, 790(79%) did not develop any grade of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy within the first three days of birth, while 210(21%) developed either Grade-I, II or III encephalopathies. Raised serum lactate and base deficit were significantly associated with the presence and severity of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in neonates born with intrapartum asphyxia (p-value<0.001).
Conclusion: Both umbilical artery lactate levels and capillary pH performed within the first 30 minutes of birth were associated with the presence and severity of Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy in neonates included in our study. These results favour lactate levels as a predictor of Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy.