The Pattern of Diagnosis in NICU Population Presenting With Respiratory Distress
Objective: To evaluate the etiology, frequency, and results of respiratory distress in newborns in the intensive care unit.
Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Combined Military Hospital (CMH) in Peshawar, from Aug 2020 to May 2021
Methodology: It included neonates admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit between the ages of 0 and 28 days
Results: The study included 182 neonates, 107 (58.6%) of whom were boys and 75 (41.4%) were girls. The average age was 68.47 ± 98.60 hours, the average gestational age was 32.6 ± 23.52 weeks, and the average weight was 2.50 ± 2.6 kg. All (100%) of the neonates had a respiratory rate >60 breaths per minute. Regarding symptoms and signs, 110 (60%) reported grunting, 182 (100%) reported nasal flaring and subcostal retractions, and 72 (40%) reported cyanosis. Respiratory distress syndrome, meconium aspiration syndrome, pneumonia, transient tachypnea of the newborn, sepsis, and birth asphyxia was observed in 42 (22.8%), 30 (16.6%), 32 (17.6%), 26 (14.1%), 32 (18.04%), and 20 (10.8%) newborns, respectively. The number of 60 (33.2%)
neonates were suffering from respiratory distress.
Conclusion: High frequency of respiratory distress among the neonates was observed along with high rates of mortality in those having respiratory distress, especially in low birth weight and pre-term neonates.