Epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 with Implications of Reinfection Update After 01 Year of Ongoing Pandemic: Cross Sectional Study From Tertiary Care Hospital From Southern Region of Pakistan
Objective: To share the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory -based evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome Corona Virus-2 with focus on the cases of re-infection; an update after one year of the ongoing pandemic.
Study Design: Prospective observational study.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology, in collaboration with Department of Medicine, Combined Military Hospital, Malir, from Mar 2020 to Feb 2021.
Methodology: Total 5190 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected and transported to the laboratory in viral transport media for severe acute respiratory syndrome Corona Virus-2, from all symptomatic patients with a history of exposure/traveling from endemic areas and those requiring admission in hospital and were screened for COVID-19 as per hospital standing protocols.
Results: 561(10.8%) patients were PCR positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome Corona Virus-2. The mean age of patients was 39.45±31.9 years and a majority of patients were males 426 (76%). The most common symptoms were fever and dry cough followed by myalgia and shortness of breath. 37 (9%) patients died due to the severity of the illness. Total 6 (1.46%) cases of laboratory-confirmed reinfection of severe acute respiratory syndrome Corona Virus-2 were reported. 2(33%) cases of reinfection were observed in health care workers, mortality was seen in a single patient associated with old age and comorbidities.
Conclusion: In our study, the severity of the disease was directly related to the age of patients and underlying comorbidities. Reinfection was associated with increased viral load and exposure to the infected environment.