COGNITIVE DECLINE AMONG PATIENTS WITH HYPERTENSION AND ASSOCIATED SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS
Objective: To determine the frequency of cognitive decline among the patients of hypertension and analyze the associated socio demographic factors.
Study Design: Cross sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Pak Emirates Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from May to Jul 2018.
Methodology: A total of 200 patients of hypertension diagnosed for >1 year by a consultant medical specialist were included in the study. Cognitive decline was assessed by using the British Columbia Cognitive Complaints Inventory (BC-CCI). Sociodemographic factors in the study included age, education, smoking, poly-pharmacy and duration of illness. They were correlated independently with the cognitive decline by using the binary logistic regression.
Results: Out of 200 patients of hypertension, 105 (52.5%) had no cognitive decline, 61 (30.5%) had mild, 23 (11.5%) had moderate and 11 (5.5%) had severe cognitive decline. Mean age of the study participants was 43.74 ± 3.15 years. Mean duration of hypertension among the patients in this study was 7.98 ± 3.35 years. Tobacco smoking and long duration of illness had significant association with cognitive decline (p-value <0.05) when binary logistic regression was applied.
Conclusion: This study showed a high frequency of cognitive decline among the patients suffering from hypertension. Special attention should be paid on individuals with long duration of illness. Tobacco smoking should be discouraged among the patients suffering from hypertension in order to prevent the problems related to cognition. Regular screening of cognitive decline should be performed on high risk cases in the hypertension clinics.