COMPARISON OF THE EFFECT OF ANTEGRADE AND ANTEGRADE/RETROGRADE CARDIOPLEGIA ON THE OUTCOME OF CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFT SURGERY FOR SEVERE CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE
Keywords:Cardioplegia techniques, Coronary artery bypass graft surgery, Myocardial protection, Outcome
Objective: To compare the early outcome of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft surgery using a combination of antegrade and retrograde cardipoplegia with that utilizing antegrade cardioplegia alone in triple vessel coronary artery disease.
Study Design: Comparative cross-sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Adult Cardiac Surgery of Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology and National Institute of Heart Diseases, Rawalpindi, from Sep 2013 to Apr 2019.
Methodology: A total of 160 patients with triple vessel coronary artery disease who underwent CABG surgery for 90% or greater stenos is in at least one major vessel in each of the three territories, namely the left anterior descending, the circumflex and the right coronary artery were investigated retrospectively. These were divided into 2 equal groups on the basis of the technique of administration of cardioplegia: in group-1 only ante grade blood cardioplegia was administered for myocardial protection and group-2 was given ante grade and retrograde cardiolplegia. Clinical outcomes like peri-operative mortality and morbidity were recorded, and serum creatine kinase MB, lactate, and mixed venous oxygen saturation levels were monitored. Two dimensional echocardiogram was performed on the 6th post-operative day and follow-up visits were planned 1 week and 4 weeks
after discharge from hospital.
Results: There were 2 (2.5%) early deaths in group-1 and no peri-operative mortality in group-2. Five patients in group-1 (6.25%) and 2 (2.5%) in group-2 had non-fatal peri-operative myocardial infarction. However, significant differences included increased incidence of intra-operative ventricular dysrythmias, higher CK-MB levels at 24 hours after surgery, and increased requirement of intra-aortic balloon pump and inotropic support in Group-1.
Conclusion: We conclude from this study that the combined delivery of ante grade and retrograde cardioplegia during CABG surgery for triple vessel coronary artery disease provides better myocardial protection and hence better outcome than antegrade cardioplegia alone.
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