TRANS-CATHETER AORTIC VALVE IMPLANTATION (TAVI)-A CASE SERIES AT AFIC/NIHD
Objective: To share our experience of percutaneous trans-catheter aortic valve implantation in patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis.
Study Design: A retrospective cross sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology/National Institute of Heart Diseases (AFIC/NIHD) Rawalpindi, from Mar 2015 to Feb 2020.
Methodology: Retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous trans-catheter aortic valve implantation was done to assess its immediate, short and long term outcome and safety. Twenty patients have undergone trans-catheter aortic valve implantation since 2015 in the institute. Base line blood chemistry including creatinine clearance, ultra-sonography abdomen, carotid Doppler, chest X-ray, High-Resolution Computed Tomography chest was done in all cases as part of the protocol. Mean age of the patients was 73 ± 7.91. There were sixteen males (80.0%) and four females (20.0%). All patients under went procedure through transfemoral route. Valve structure and peripheral vasculature for suitability of the procedure was assessed by computerized coronary tomographic angiography with TAVI protocol. In eleven patients aortic valve was trileaflet (55.0%) and in remaining nine it was bicuspid (45.0%). Mean gradient across the valve pre-procedure was 56.37 ± 9.14. Thirteen patients (65.0%) presented with angina/dysnoea NYHA III, 6 patients with syncope (30.0%) and one (5.0%) had heart failure. Two patients had undergone previous coronary artery bypass surgery. Procedure was carried out under general anesthesia in all patients except one. Balloon expandable Edwards Sapienvalve was implanted in two patients and self-expandable Core Valve/Evolut R in eighteen patients.
Results: Seventeen patients underwent the procedure successfully with reduction of the mean gradients immediately after valve implantation to less than 15 mmHg recorded in the cath labangiographically subsequently complemented by transthoracic echocardiography. There were 3 deaths during the index hospitalization. Two occurred in the catheterization laboratory, one death was due to development of severe acute aortic regurgitation and second was due to acute coronary obstruction. Third death occurred due to acute kidney injury after seven days. Five patients died in next three months during follow up. One patient required permanent pacemaker because of development of left bundle branch block and second degree atrio-ventricular block post procedure.
Conclusion: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis is a very effective and procedurally safe option and reasonable alternative to surgical valve replacement in high operative risk individuals.