Association of Panel Reactive Antibodies (PRA) with Complement Dependent Cytotoxicity (CDC) Cross-Match in Pre-Renal Transplant Recipients
Objective: To determine the association of panel reactive antibodies (PRA) with complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) cross-match in Pakistani pre-renal transplant recipients.
Study Design: Cross-sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: Immunology Department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from Oct 2017 to Oct 2018.
Methodology: A total of 162 patients referred to the Department of Immunology for pre-transplant workup for renal transplantation were included. Informed consent was taken, and detailed history was recorded. Frequency and percentages were calculated for cross-match positivity and most frequent anti-HLA antibodies.
Results: Panel reactive antibodies (PRA) were present in 48 patients (30%), while complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) cross-match was positive in 16 patients (10%). Out of 141 male patients, 35 (25%) were positive for PRA, while 10 (7%) had positive CDC cross-match. Out of 21 female recipients, 13 (62%) were positive for PRA, and 6 (28%) had positive CDC crossmatch. One male patient positive for CDC cross-match was negative for PRA. Patients positive for both CDC cross-match and PRA have an average mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) of more than 4000. CDC cross-match and PRA were strongly associated, whereas no significant association was found between CDC cross-match and anti-MIC antibodies.
Conclusion: Complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) cross-match and panel reactive antibodies (PRA) should be routine in patients undergoing renal transplants as alone CDC cross-match can give false negative or false-positive results. At the same time, CDC cross-match lacks detection of anti MIC antibodies involved in graft rejection.