HEAT AND MORTALITY IN PAKISTAN: A STUDY INTO THE GENDER PERSPECTIVE
Heat And Mortality in Pakistan
Objective: To explore the gender sensitive dimensions of the impacts of heat on mortality in Pakistan using annual time series data from 1972 to 2015 to frame effective health policy and create awareness among masses.
Study Design: Retrospective study.
Place and Duration of Study: The research was carried out at COMSATS Institute of Information Technology and National Defense University Islamabad. Data were collected for the years 1972 to 2015 from world development indicators and Climatic Research unit.
Material and Methods: This is an empirical study. Secondary data was employed for analysis that was collected from world development indicator and climate research unit. Regression was used to assess the relationship between mortality and temperature. Stationary tests were applied to avoid spurious regression. Reliability of results was ensured through different measures of mortality. Some other determinants of human health like trade, remittances, and inflation were also included to overcome confounding factors. Data were entered and
analyzed in STATA.
Results: The findings show that temperature and different measures of mortality are strongly and positively linked. However, females are more vulnerable to temperature than males. The vulnerability of females to temperature increases further as the age decreases. This shows that infants, particularly females, are more vulnerable to rising temperature as the coefficient on temperature has larger magnitude in female mortality regressions.
Conclusion: The temperature and mortality are strongly linked and this association strengthens with the decrease in age. The younger the child the more vulnerable to temperature rise. Moreover female children are more exposed to temperature impacts as compare to male children of same age group. In all categories, the regression coefficient is high in case of females and follows the same trend as the age decreases.